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An eG8 before the G8

May 27, 2011 by Flavie | Comments (1)

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24 May. Eric Besson, Frederic Mitterrand, Christine Lagarde, Rupert Murdoch, News Corporation.

Around 1000 persons gathered at the eG8 forum that took place in Paris this week, on 24 and 25 May. Key players of the Internet, among them CEOs of Google, Eric Schmidt, Facebook, Mark Zuckerberg, eBay, John Donahoe, Free, Xaviel Niel, participated to the event together with French Minister of Economy, Christine Lagarde, French Minister of Industry, Energy and Digital Economy, Eric Besson, and French Minister of Culture, Frederic Mitterrand. Some members of the civil society were also present like Jimmy Wales, founder of Wikipedia. The event was organized by the French major communication group Publicis, mandated by French President, Nicolas Sarkozy, to provide input for the G8 (ending today in Deauville) where Internet has been for the first time an item on the agenda.

The aim of the meeting was to discuss how Internet, the digital world and mobile communication can accelerate growth: this summit was resolutely placed under the aegis of the economic growth in developed countries and mainly attended by the private sector. However, some issues of utmost global importance were tackled: Internet regulation, intellectual property, open data and public services, privacy, new economic models, innovation, consequences of mobility, Internet and the media…

The opening speech of the French President tool place in the middle of a hive of ICT users: a public of around 1000 people massively concentrated as much on their iphones and iPad tablet, facebooking and tweeting, than on what was going on the stage, always here… and there.

French President stated that freedom of expression on the Internet was “the red line between democracy and dictactorship: nothing today can be done in the silence of the international community (…) things have changed more deeply than we think”. He also smoothened his position from what he used to mention as a “civilized Internet” to a “responsible Internet”: “no one can control or stop Internet but it needs a minimum of values and rules (…) the addition of individual aspirations does not create a social contract (…)”

The issue of regulation was given a paramount importance since the very beginning of the debates.  The first session on the Internet and Economic Growth started with the observation that Internet critical growth is a huge accelerator for the economy, especially at the level of small businesses. Eric Schmidt, Google CEO, stated that “private sector's technical solutions to problems on Internet will be faster than governmental on regulatory solutions”. The fact that governments should not regulate content but provide access and ensure broadband was highly debated. French Minister of Economy, Christine Lagarde (as well as French President in his opening speech) emphasized on the need for regulation as a “backbone”, especially on issues like corruption and security.

Eric Schmidt mentioned that Internet “has a bias: empowering individuals, most of governments have trouble with that shift of power”. Some freedom of expression activists criticized the fact that the conference protected the idea of intellectual property (debate on Intellectual Property and the Culture Economy in the Digital Age with Frederic Mitterrand) but did not deal with freedom of expression issues and Sarkozy was pinned down by Reporters without Borders for neglecting the issue of freedom of expression and cyber dissidents.

Voices of activists for a free and open Internet like la Quadrature du Net, Telecomix, Chaos Computer Club, are growing, criticizing the event as an operation of communication for multinationals and governments. Jérémie Zimmermann from la Quadrature du Net puts forward the contradiction of private sectors main operators: the lack of privacy of data in Google and Facebook and operators opposed to a free and open Internet. However, Gilles Babinet, from the recently created Conseil national du numérique, stated that there was a growing global consensus on non intervention. Maurice Levy, Publicis CEO found the activists’ statements “ironical” stating that the goal of the conference was to gather free discussions among Internet actors so that they could influence the G8 by providing food for thought to Chief of States.

As the Internet Governance Caucus (IGC) denounced the participation by only a small group of developed countries to decisions regarding the Internet and particularly its governance, Sarkozy mentioned the idea of going as far as the UN General Assembly.

Six main themes have been examined at the G8 yesterday and today: broadband access to all, privacy, health, security, education, and intellectual property. A synthesis should be provided at the end of the Summit. Freedom of expression is already one of the most important points of the common declaration that should recognize the role of Internet in the Arabic revolution. There is still no consensus on net neutrality (principle which advocates no restrictions on consumer’s access to all networks). The document should also agree on the necessity of intellectual property and privacy while leaving sufficient space for entrepeneurship and innovation, taking into account the impact of Internet in economic growth.

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25 May. Maurice Levy, Publicis CEO talks to Mark Zuckerberg, Facebook founder & CEO.

(c) Bob Edme/AP

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Aviation and Aerospace Informal Education

 

Jeri Hallberg Harmon de Tamez, M.Ed.

 

UniversityOfTexasatEl Paso

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Abstract

     Research has suggested that theUnited Statesemploys various pedagogical practices via informal aviation and aerospace studies programs which served as enrichment products toward the mastery of Science, Technology, Engineering and Math. Data, arguments, and end user solutions served to enhance student learning experiences. Aerospace studies and introduction to ground school lent itself to STEM applicability in early childhood through adolescent informational education, enrichment and non- profit programs. This review was conducted as a practice and research based model, was limited in scope to primary and secondary sources and while no formal interviews were included, primary observation as a result of observer participation had been described by the author. Multiple programs and entities were reviewed through literature and   articles from internet sources. The author also obtained data through years of query, participation and practice not as a licensed pilot but as an enthusiast and aerospace/aviation liaison/facilitator. Recent statements from President Barack Obama, the popular press, aerospace and aviation youth development programs and government archives regarding the current and future trends education inAmericawere included.  This study focused also on pedagogical theorists’ models as they related to educational enrichment and   informational education vehicles which served to implement drop out recovery, increase STEM applicability and prepare  future workforce development strategies.

             Keywords: Aviation, Aerospace, Informal Education, After School Enrichment

      To encourage all  United States of America populations to take advantage of numerous aerospace and aviation programs which served to enhance the education experience and increase STEM applicability and limited real time and archived data spanning the years 1980 through 2011 were presented and analyzed. Participants ranged in age from 4 to twenty one.  TheUnited Statesprograms as well as comparison data from international communities were included. Government documentation to include Public Laws 106-398 (2000) and 557 (1946), information from the Department of Education and outcome based objectives were researched. Post program experience and extended mentoring involvement with participants included  life skills content, time in class, average grading standards on an A to B scale and demonstrable performance by program participants. The purpose of this qualitative study was to suggest that, for some student populations, informal aviation/aerospace education programs shifted a seemingly failing formal math, science and public school education into a bona fide, successful experience via informal participant centered curriculum. In other cases the programs enhanced student experiences and allowed a greater understanding of STEM applicability, theoretically created enthusiasm and rationale for increased STEM study and participation.  The identification, definition and clarification of this topic was  the  result of recent articles and   headlines which indicated that the American Public Education System had allegedly failed in meeting International Math and Science achievement scores.  (The New Atlantis, 2003)

Within the United States and more specifically the state of  Texas, high student dropout rates and its  overall effect have been reported in the IES, National Center for Education Statistics report(2010) and Christian Science Monitor   (2010).   As an example, the Intercultural Development Research Association report of October 2010, suggested that between the years of 1985-2010, three million students in Texashad not passed high school and overall one third of our nation’s youth had not gone beyond a high school education. It can be summarized that low education and high dropout rates increase cyclical poverty, criminal activity and incarceration.  The School Library Journal (2008),  had stated that   dropouts are three times more likely to be arrested and eight times more likely to be incarcerated. Nationally, 68% of all prison inmates did not have a high school diploma or general education diploma. In Gary Scharrer’s article for Houston and Texas News titled  “ Poverty, dropout rates bode grim future for the state”,   increased  welfare, incarceration, dependence on Medcaid, food stamps and state sponsored health insurance are inevitable as the effects of low education result in low or non  employability (2010).

Conversely, some homeschooled student populations and high achievers compete with grades and enjoy the enrichment informal education programs have to offer.  The theory that traditional teaching and learning methods fragment knowledge can further be researched at www.ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/issues/educators, and suggested  that students learn with emphasized understanding, authentic and in depth projects, enthusiasm and focus increase. Either way, students from various origins have experienced  benefits from informal, after school aviation and aeronautic  enrichment programs. Many wish to rise above the norm and achieve greater or different goals and informal aviation education programs  increased, improved, and implemented knowledge and applicability.      This brings us to the theories of William Glasser, (1959) as referenced by Marzano(2003,  p.57),  who has stated that behavior demonstrated for  students and  coupled with  expectations for   replication  served as examples and  foundations, transference  of knowledge and applicability of new behavior.   As implemented by dynamic, modern, after school, informal aviation enrichment programs, more specifically for this study: Civil Air Patrol Aerospace Education Member programs, Experimental Aircraft Association’s (EAA)Young Eagles program, and   Hi- Tek Learning Systems youth at risk work force development program; in which students were engaged in positive environments with  STEM applicability and  immediate positive and measurable outcomes. To elaborate, High –Tek Learning Systems acted as a drop out recovery and aviation work force training program in 2000 and 2001 (Hallberg, 2010).  The author served as a participant observer and instruction specialist tasked with acting as the aviation community liaison. Hi- Tek Learning Systems in conjunction with, RCI and the Upper Rio Grande WorkForce Development Commission and with cooperation of local aviation participants; Bob Kern of Skydive El Paso, Dick Azar of Blue Feather Aviation, Charles Bella of  Bear Helicopter, Phil Barrett of West Texas Airport, and numerous other state, federal and private aviation entities; at risk youth were given the opportunity to participate in an intense, aviation based life skills and workforce development program.  Life skills, ground school and field based experiences were conducted.  While much of the operation was confidential, a pre assessment, baseline Texas Assessment of Basic Education (TABE) measure was recorded. All cadet participants were guaranteed an increase in math and reading scores ( focusing though not limited to scientific empirical data), a minimum of one to three grade levels within an eight to ten week time frame. Given, all parties followed the format and maintained program integrity, and due to  intense, hands on, field based experiences, as evidenced and inferred by Vygotskian theories of  Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD), and under the tutelage of the aforementioned aviators and entities, all criteria were met. All cadets completed the program and raised their scores in math and reading one to three grade levels with in the predicted time frame.    To bring these ideas and projects into focus let us expand and elaborate on pedagogical theorists, their contributions to the field and theoretical applications as they applied to  implemented informal aviation and enrichment programs.

    The theories of  Lev Semyonovich Vygotsky’s psychosocial development as observed by Woolfolk (1998) suggested that social interaction led to changes in student development, that  culture and  tools which society provided determined the  development of the individual.   Vygotskian   constructs suggested that knowledge was acquired, built; that  learning was developed, language played a role in development and learning had to be contained within a given social content, all elements of numerous informal aviation enrichment programs.  The theory of proximal development, the transfer of information and behavior was titled by Vygotsky as the “zone of proximal development” (ZPD).

     Likewise, subjectivity and scaffolding, building upon prior knowledge, of the individual, were required elements in the developmental process (Moll, 1994). Hypothetically, subjective perception from an event experienced by more than one person, could initially have been perceived distinctly and differently, and later evolved into an event of which multiple parties interpreted an event congruously. While each had their own initial perception, affect, of the event, the phenomena changed from distinct events into the same (understood) event.  Thus creating a like mind set among distinct individuals. Scaffolding referred to the degree and support offered while one learned a new skill. An individual could and would accomplish a task themselves (automaticity) if elements of support were initially present, then gradually removed.  

     It is within this and other pedagogical contexts we find the value of informal education enrichment programs.  Christina Gallagher, (1999) identified that the individual zone of proximal development (the need for a teacher, guide or tutor) differed from person to person. Gallagher further cited Piagetian theory that children themselves were the center of their learning, that catalysis and learning were more internally based rather than externally based.

          Further, referencing the North Central Regional Educational Laboratory (2010) website on fragmented knowledge and basic skills,  high achievers were classified as receptive, and responsive with options and opinions, gifted learners comprehended ideas in depth, enjoyed self directed learning, and  generated complex, abstract ideas. Creative thinkers created new possibilities, played with ideas and speculated on outcomes. These characteristics were apparent, stated and valued in the experience of aerospace, aviation participant centered programs reviewed.  While some public school systems have expected blind obedience to the rules and regulations, quite often, it is the  risk taking, creative, beyond the  “two standards of deviation from the norm”, student who had excelled in aviation programs. While it may be argued that Piagetian and Vygotskian  theories were polarized and  impossible to concur; this author is of the belief that their theories were synchronized, symbiotic, complmentary and were exemplified in the afore mentioned enrichment program deliveries.

        To continue with the example    of   Hi –Tek Learning Systems, cadets mentored in ground school under the tutelage of Charles Bella used a flight simulator with rudder pedals, a computer monitor, and joy stick to virtually fly and navigate aircraft. Motor engagement and stimuli of the neural cortex demonstrated Piagetian theories that emphasized universal cognitive change and Vygotskian focus on cultural development as students were immersed in a new environment with expanded constructs, new vocabulary and meaning, in which they had control, uniquely distinct and different from their previous schemata. Both pedagogical theories were demonstrated, were symbiotic, and factored into demonstrable development and ground school parameters. The program resulted in participants’ measurable increased scores in the core curriculum, classroom compliance and socially acceptable behavior.  This suggested that enrichment programs, specifically in the fields of aviation and aerospace studies, for this cohort were a valuable adjunct to formal education using STEM applicability.  It is noted that while the author was bias toward the implementation of such programs, initial and post program TABE scores offered more objective data.

     The aviation/aerospace/STEM connection further correlated as articles referring to low American test results in math and science as compared to numerous other countries were reviewed and, theoretically, informal aviation learning environments included direct links and delivery systems which seemed to fill a gap and present an innovative, immediately applicable solution to the problem of achievement.

      To  further expand on  Howard Gardener’s multiple intelligences (MI) theory, Gardner had  suggested that as people learn to know, or know to learn through language, analysis and spatial representation,  we differ in areas and in strengths of the multiple intelligences (Gardner, 1991).

 

     Coincidentally, it had been observed with this singular example, that through and though the teachings and directives of the El Paso aviation community participants’ distinct styles and under the direction of Hi-Tek Learning Systems, Kern, Bella, Dawson, Barrett, Azar and Hallberg,  pedagogy resulted in participants’ demonstrable behavior. As described inGardner’s MI theory, mathematical, spatial, linguistic, kinesthetic, visual and auditory intelligences were acted upon and acted synchronously. In this example of complex and combined theories, real world  STEM application and   its applicability challenged a formal education setting with informal mechanisms, systems and methods which brought differentiated and increased (participants’) levels of cognitive, neurological and motor skills. These observations challenged traditional assumptions that all students learn in the same way ( Hallberg, 1991).

     These specific practices  included empirical and clinically collected documentation and data,  suggested that participants who were at risk or who had dropped out of high school, had experienced positive  effects of an informal  aviation program. This ultimately forced us to beg the question:

 “What methods have been utilized in public schools, are we giving student sthe attention, guidance and expertise required of a successful academic program? What materials and methods may we utilize to strengthen our national high school student retention rate, initiate authentic, applicable training, and continue a competitive stance in international competitive and cooperative achievement”?

 

      To quantify  the argument, low performance and high dropout rates have resulted in annual losses in  hundreds of billions of dollars, in Texasalone. According to Steve Murdock, sociology professor atRiceUniversity(Scharrer, 2010), those statistics are referencing (the recovery) of Texas Hispanic and African American students. This correlation further substantiated the author’s understanding that in some cases informal enrichment programs, specifically focused on aviation, aeronautics, and aerospace studies may solve targeted social, economic and employment situations. This hypothesis inferred that models of aviation programs including alternative or adjunct settings utilizing the resources of informal programs to  maintain a hold on valuable social  positions. In terms of human capitol, work force development and Gross National Product, private, state, and Federally funded programs pay for themselves in terms of reduced high school dropout rates, reduced incarceration or recidivism, reduced welfare programs, and  increased skills in the labor force numerous other aerospace and aviation related  positions are available. While not all participants are expected nor may they be interested in obtaining a pilot’s license, ground crew, engineers, meteorologists, flight navigators and engineers are just few examples of the entire body of the aviation/aerospace industries. As teaching and learning models theorized by Gardner, Piaget, Vygotsky and Marzano and as presented with programs such as Civil Air Patrol Aerospace Educators, Young Eagles, Hi-Tek  Learning Systems and NASA, new schemata and optimized pedagogy may improve  school retention, productivity, competition and economic outcomes for the state and nation.

 

       Other examples of the multitheorist approach were offered through data from the 2010 Civil Air Patrol (CAP) fact sheet.  CAP  has  three  main functions: aerospace education, cadet programs and emergency services. Founded by 150,000 citizens, volunteers have contributed to the defense of the United States. As the result of Public Law 106-398, thus far, CAP participant volunteers assisted in  flights which have totaled 110,00  flying hours. CAP challenges youth to be drug free, and offers  activities in aviation, space and technology. Cadets have been taught to provide disaster relief support to local, state and national organizations and to transport time sensitive medical body tissues and blood products.   According to the literature,
  CAP goals included the promotion of good citizenship, high academic standards, and preparation for a career in the Armed Forces. Civil Air Patrol also sponsors the AEM, Aerospace Educators Member program. Informal  teachers, AEM’s may choose to deliver aerospace training with prepared materials that are age appropriate for k-12 grade levels. All prepared materials from CAP are nationally aligned with the state and national standards for the language arts, math and science, (CAP publication, 2010). According to the AEM introduction brochure, AEM’S may deliver the Aerospace Excellence Awards Program (AEX). This program is flexible, and  can be introduced at anytime of the year. Four age and grade appropriate books may be presented to conduct the classes. AEX volumes I and II are designed for kindergarten through grades five, AEX II  and  volumes I and II are for grades 6- 12),(CAP, 2010). An aerospace related activity such as a visit the NASA training center in El Paso, Texas, or an aerospace career day at Horizon Airport  may compliment the mandatory six lesson certification protocol. CAP also offered  the MARS programs, (making aerospace real for students),  (CAP publication, 2010).
     Aligned with Science, Technology, Engineering and Math curriculum (STEM), teachers prepared students for aerospace and aviation careers  The  School Enrichment Programs (SEP), for early childhood students  CAP  have continued to  align with NASA, state and national  core curriculum standards (2010).  One example  CAP/ NASA lesson plan included a  poster presentation of the International Space Station  (ISS).With a basic outline and quantifiable specifications on architecture and dynamics, information on the ISS, eighty mission, twelve year assembly process provided copious amounts of quantified data and included material for learning, practicing and applying formulas for mass, volume, velocity, dimension, time.  Applicability, empowerment and knowledge of having participated in   nasa.edu.,  programs stimulated learning. Additional activities included sending their names to space on satellites, creating poetry, artwork, or design landing pads, land rovers or design modules.  Online programs are offered twenty four hours a day, seven days a week, hands on, real time,  with numerous and multiple  environmental immersion experiences. Leadership skills and recorded progress had supplemented learners’ experiences.

  Following, are two charts, Figures 1 and 2,  which show various informal education and aviation, aerospace and aeronautic enrichment programs. While the overall theme is cohesive, compatibility and symbiotic nature of different informal aviation and aerospace programs are displayed. Figure 2 shows different similar and dissimilar opportunities for stated programs.  Life skills, character building, selfless service, and protection of our nation, sense of community, opportunity and positive mental attitude training are highlighted. The asterisks on Figure 2 indicate that a program offers the indicated opportunity

 

AEM/CAP

Hi-Tek Learning Systems

Young Eagles

Leader

Skills

Training

 skillsship

Life long

valuesvaluesIFElONG vALUES

AEX

Figure 1­­­­­­­­­­­­     

 

 

 

 

 

 

                 

 

Age Appropriate

STEM

Scholarships

Hands on

Activities

Leadership

Skills

AEM

K-12

K-12

Yes

Yes, K-12

Yes, K-12

CAP

12-21

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

HI TEK

16-21

Yes

N/A

Yes

Yes

NASA

K-12

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

YOUNG EAGLES

10-18 years old

Yes

 Flights charge no fee

Yes

Yes

Figure 2

Additional study for students and cadets regarding the International Space Station revealed that component manufacturing countries included isCanada,France,JapanandRussia.  This fact prompted students to understand the importance of human relations, international relations, communication skills and language arts. Additional details on just one ISS poster lesson detailing the Integrated Truss Structure inferred the importance os language arts as communication tools.  This one poster  activity  in which students studied the ISS,  met the National Technology Standards nine and ten (CAP, NASA, 2009, ISS poster) which stated: students will develop an understanding of engineering design and of the roles of troubleshooting, research and development, invention and innovation, and experimentation in problem solving.  Recall that the definition and clarification of this review was directed to increase STEM applicability, student enthusiasm, student engagement and content mastery.

      By contrast, some studies have indicated the American Public Education System has failed in meeting International Math and Science achievement scores, as compared to numerous other countries. This literature review proposed a look at informal and non profit programs which served to enhance STEM mastery. International, state and national measures were considered, but by no means was this information construed to be all encompassing or inclusive
     According to Leigh A. Hall and Susan Piazza, in their article titled “Critical Reading Texts: What Students do and How Teachers Can Help”, (The Reading Teacher, volume 62, number 1, September 2008,  numerous social injustices experienced by some students and proven by statistics implied that through social constructivism and  critical literacy, “ teachers will want to provide a supportive, non-judgmental environment”.  Such a theory was personified in practice by many Young Eagles pilots including Waldo Cavender, Dick Green, Bill Johnson, Dave Rains, Steve Johnson and Bill Kirkwood who among other volunteer pilots, nationally, have flown 1.2 million flights.    This data suggests Young Eagles volunteers and pilots provided the supportive environment nationwide necessary to engage learners in a content rich environment. (2010).       To  further support the  impetus for aviation studies as a vehicle to improve STEM, we refer to  an article in  the New Atlantis, and we will further explore the benefits of youth aviation training programs. The New Atlantis published an article regarding the supposed lagging United States position as compared to various countries in terms of math testing outcomes. Questionable procedures, sampling and content interfered with validity and reliability of exams. The article presented numerous points and supplied cohesion to polarized arguments regarding the position of numerous countries. Written in 2005, published and quoted directly, the New Atlantis article titledCURRENT ISSUE “How We Measure Up Is American Math and Science Education in Decline?” posed “top executives at three of the nation’s leading technology firms”… criticized that students are (not)    taught science and mathematics. Bill Gates stated “until high schools are redesigned, we will keep limiting, ruining, the lives of millions of Americans.”   Further, Newsweek cover story by Fareed Zakaria appealing for a “massive new focus” on science and technology in theU.S..

      Worth further study are two tests frequently administered internationally, the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) and the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS). PISA, is affiliated with the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD).  Christian Science Monitor ran with the headline “Math + Test = Trouble for U.S. Economy,” concluded that the study’s emphasis on “real-life” math skills makes it an accurate and “sobering” predictor of students’ performance in “the kind of life-skills that employers care about.  John Doe, a trigonometry, geometry and calculus teacher currently employed in Texas stated and concurred that results presented a false image of what the true picture was (personal disclosure, confidential contact, 2010). “Though international surveys may have generated skewed sampling not considered generalizable, the overall globally tested populations were not considered valid, reliable or representative as schools in Europe do not represent the national average, and other schools overseas do not represent the entire population as American schools do.  TIMSS and PISA contained test material derived from numerous countries whose curriculum were believed to have been narrowly focused, deeper rather then broadly as compared to the  United States.  Internationally, immigration, cross border employment and cross national representation further swayed test results.   Finally, Gerald Bracey pointed out in a 1997 article in the journal Educational Research that, “If one reads the [domestic] educational research literature, one is struck by the lengths—the lengths—that researchers go to ensure that samples are comparable, the research community would not have accepted test results in this country that compared scores of  slum societies  as compared to affluent societies.

     WhileU.S.students from all socioeconomic levels were tested, the student samples from other countries were in their final years of advanced math classes as well as being upper classmen in other disciplines. TheUnited Statessample of students did not necessarily represent the top of the class; rather, it represented a broad range of students from various academic standings and classification.  Albeit, The U.S. has competitively continued to produce Ph.D.s in the sciences and engineering according to the National Science Foundation, the Consortium for Science, Policy and Outcomes atArizonaStateUniversity, contend that countries who claim to have surpassed theUnited Statesin educational studies, cannot currently  compete with theU.S.in  research productivity. Further, allegations that Gates and other industry moguls seemed to appeal for school reform, as method to condone corporate overseas outsourcing.

    Through numerous articles and news reports,  on may infer that  lower scores were the result of  assessments evidenced as major factors in reducing the comparative standing of the U.S.in international surveys of achievement. In, in Texasalone between 1984 and 2010 three million blacks and Hispanics dropped out Research has inferred that billions of dollars are lost as a result of black and Hispanic dropout rates (2010). An increase in math and science proficiency among the black and Hispanic minorities could change the outcome of the U.S. lead with Western G5.  Local state corporatism, market control, regional governments, tax breaks on  overseas funded high-tech industries, and  new universities projected China to  graduate more terminal degrees as compared to the  United States by 2010. Examples of Chinese leaders who are well educated engineers include President Hu Jintao, and Premier Wen Jiabao. “… competition should motivate the U.S. to improve its science and math education, especially for poor and minority students…”  stated  the editors of The New Atlantis, “How We Measure Up,” The New Atlantis, Number 9, summer 2005, pp. 111-116.

Conclusions

     Professional educators are urged to conduct further study, become agents of social change, and commit themselves to their communities and nation. Whether paid or not, professional educators have numerous opportunities with informal education to consistently and unrelentingly engage our nation’s  advancement through informal and formal programs. It is our duty to create the teachable moment, the nationalist mind, adhere to Department of Education protocol, and to assist in creating the higher order thinker, the  critical thinker who utilizes all resources to protect, apply, and  adapt  to the changing benefits of America. While still maintaining a positive cooperative stance with international societies and while not all educators or students are excited about aerospace studies or aviation, numerous opportunities are available to forward students’ progress in STEM disciplines.

     As a result of   this limited review of aviation youth programs and according to a Google search, circa 2010, over 90 web links were found using the key words: Youth aviation programs.  All programs were not based in theUnited States, numerous sites had online components as well as face to face programs, and so were not location specific. A very limited compilation of programs and web links which contain activities for youth in aviation follow. Kindergartens through twelfth grade are accommodated. Some programs focus on closing the gender gap in STEM, others are for low income or urban student, while most focus on all students. All programs  focused on the improvement of the academic and  social being.    

    Examples included: A New Age in Space: The Vision for Space Exploration coloring book   is available online and is full of space imagery that tells the story of the Vision for Space Exploration.  Produced by The Coalition for Space Exploration, Actionjetz.com  a child-friendly online airplane games site, they offer airplane toys and online plane games for kids.   The Aerospace Education Foundation  The AEF vision is to educate America’s youth in math and the sciences to help keep America’s edge in aerospace technology.   The Air League  Promotes air-mindedness in the young by encouraging and assisting them to follow careers in aviation and the aerospace industry, awards flying scholarships and bursaries to assist deserving young people to learn to fly, and awards engineering scholarships to assist deserving young people to gain experience of the aerospace Artie the Airplane  Children’s book and video series with colorful illustrations, engaging characters and dialogue, and fun story lines.

     Aviation Explorer Base  Provides an opportunity for Explorer Post members to gather and learn about aviation first hand.  The Oshkosh WI Airventure Convention, Aviation Exploring  an aviation-based program for youth ages 14 through 20 is a division of the Boy Scouts, seeks to build character, train leaders, and encourage fitness. non-toxic rubber.  The mic boom is reinforced with heavyweight wire for easy positioning. Aviation for Little Folks  Teach students the parts of an airplane and how to fold a paper airplane with this NASA Educational On-line Activity from NASA Spacelink.  Designed for grades K-4,

     Aviation Scholarship Foundation  An aviation charity dedicated to students from impoverished communities with a mission to fund private pilot training for low income youth, AvKids  A program designed to educate elementary school students about the benefits of business aviation to the community and the career opportunities available to them in the business aviation industry.  Brigade Air, Inc.  is an independent, non-profit organization introduces teens to missionary aviation worldwide, through week-long summer aviation camps, and a year-round club program.  Not affiliated with any church or denominational organization, Chamberlain Aviation - Youth Pilot Training Program  Twelve training workbooks follow a logical progression of training for the young aviator to coincide with flight lessons, Civil Air Patrol  The all civilian, all volunteer official auxiliary of the United States Air Force.  Nearly half of the members are teenage girls and boys between the ages of 12-21,

     Experimental Aircraft Association (EAA) Air Academy has an aviation camp. EAA Aviation Young Eagles Web Site Extensive programs for young aviators. With the program titled  Easy Paper Airplanes  students may learn how to make paper airplanes.

FAA Aviation Education - Kids Corner  Activities such as coloring books, word puzzles, and experiments. Closing the gender gap and increasing female STEM mastery are the Girls Uniformed Youth Organization. It is geared for females aged 11-20. Their program  provides aviation studies with a  travel-based program. Girls With Wings is a movement which focuses on elementary aged females.  The K-8 Aeronautics Internet Textbook  Hosted by AvKids.com, is Internet-based, multimedia  which provides student workbooks and teachers’ guides which were  created by Cislunar Aerospace, Inc,  through collaboration with NASA’s Learning Technologies Project.  Participating organizations receive complete texts on aeronautics, which include multiple  reading levels and  curriculum bridges.  NASA Glenn Educational Activities  Educational programs for Kindergarten through Grade 12 (K-12) called  NASA Quest Project  has a mission to provide support and services for schools, teachers and students to fully utilize the Internet a teaching modality.  The Quest Project is a service of the Education Program of the     National Aeronautics and Space AdministrationPlaneMath is an internet site at which students and teachers can learn about math and aeronautics. SciJinks, is an interactive web site sponsored by NOAA and NASA. This site provides information and lessons about weather and emergency preparedness. Locally, inEl Paso,Texas,   atWest Texas airport, which was founded by the late Phil Barrett and is currently operated by Patricia and Terry Barrett, this author located the local chapter of the Soaring Society of America. The national Soaring Society of America also provides links to numerous aviation opportunities and informal aviation programs.

       Finally, the Young Eagles sponsored by the EAA program provides students aged 8 to 17 the chance to flying in a small aircraft piloted by licensed aviators. The flights are available nationally, are free of charge and are a gift from national EAA member volunteers. The Youth Aviation Foundation is composed of mentors who lead youth in aerospace science, leadership, and citizenship.

    To surmise,it  is the premise of this author that through dedicated adults, leaders, and teachers of informal education, young people can be inspired to participate in youth aviation programs while simultaneously participating in meaningful STEM projects. This study hoped to encourage all populations to take advantage of various programs which served to enhance the education experience, improve student empowerment and efficacy and prepare the future aviation workforce.

 Informal aviation and aeronautic programs may also increase global competiveness and offer options to the ” at risk” learner, the advanced and the academically gifted students. The author wished to present evidence which demonstrated the worldwide value and view that youth aviation programs met numerous social goals and objectives. 

      These programs improve students’ mastery, strategies, and application of core curriculum.  As President Obama announced in 2010, several partnerships include over a $250 million investment as part of his Educate to Innovate campaign. Science and math instruction are a priority, informal aviation and aeronautics programs bridge the gap as increased after school programs and instruction are made available. (President Obama, 2010). Finally, further study in this field is proposed for unlimited access and in every education setting as catalysts for STEM and multidisciplinary mastery.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Arteaga K., C. C. Aerospace: the journey of flight.Huntsville,Alabama: Civil Air Patrol.

Barrett, P. Contributing Instructor Hi Tek Learning Systems.El Paso,Texas.

Bella, C. Hi Tek Learning Systems contributing instructor.El Paso.

Cavender, W. E. (2005 thru 2010). www. Young Eagles.org.

Civil air patrol fact sheet (2010)..HuntsvilleAlabama: Civil Air Patrol

Dawson, G. Gene’sFlightSchoolcontributing Instructor.Santa Teresa,New Mexico.

Editors. (2005). “How we measure up,” . The New Atalantis , 111-116.

Gallagher, C. (1999). Lev Semyonovich Vygotsky.

Gallagher, C. (1999). Lev Vygotsky. www.muskingum.edu.

Gallagher, C. (1999). Psychology History.

Gardner, H. (1983). Frames of Mind .

Glasser, W. (1925). The quality school/ managing students without coercion.New YorkNew York: Harper Perennial.

Hallberg, J. M. HI tek Learning Systems Ground School Instructor.Sebring,Floridaand  El Paso,Texas: Hi Tek Learning Systems.

 

References

 

 

IESNationalCenterfor Education Statistics. (2010). Fast Facts What are the Drop Out Rates for High School Students? The Condition of Education 2010. U.S Department of Education,NationalCenter for Education Statistics.

Kern, B. (2000 thru 2010). Sky Dive El Paso. SKY DIVE EL PASO.Santa Teresa,New Mexico.

Levine, M. (2003). A mind at a time.New York: Simon & Schuster.

Marzano, R. J. ( (2003)). Teaching with visual frameworks.Thousand Oaks,CA: Corwin publishing.

Moll. (1998). Differentiated  instruction. Dude Publishing, NY. Aerospace Education

Museum, W. E. (1990- 2010). WarEaglesEaglesAirMuseum. Ongoing Education Dynamics.Santa Teresa,New Mexico:WarEaglesAirMuseum edited by Terry Sundae.

NASA. (1990- 2010). www.nasa.edu, www.nasa.kids, www.nasa.gov. NASA online programs for children.Houston,Texas,Pensicola,Florida, Edwards AFB: NASA.

The New Atlantis, “How We Measure Up,” The New Atlantis, Number 9, summer 2005, pp. 111-116.                                                      

 

(2010). President Obama Announces Steps to reduce Dropout Rate and Prepare Students for College.Washington,D.C.: www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/ president- obama-announces.

 

References

 

 

Scharrer, Gary. (2010, June 21). Poverty, dropout rates bode grim future for state. Chron, Houston & Texas News Austin Bureau .

 

 WarEaglesAirMuseum,Santa Teresa,New Mexico. www.war-eagles-air-museum.com

◦Woolfolk Hoy, A. (1998). Complexity and coherence: an essay review of the handbook of educational psychology. . Teachers College Record , 437-452.

Young Eagles Organization. www.youngeagles.org. United States: Young Eagles. (1990 thru 2010).

 

 

 

 

paper title: 5304 Scholarly Writing/ Aviation and Aeronautic Informal Education by Jeri Hallberg Harmon de Tamez

paper ID: 161297854

author: Hallberg Harmon de Tamez, Jeri

go to portfolio

 

 

 

 

Multiple programs and entities were reviewed through literature and   articles from internet sources. The author also obtained data through years of query, participation and practice not as a licensed pilot but as an enthusiast and aerospace/aviation liaison/facilitator. Recent statements from President Barack Obama, the popular press, aerospace and aviation youth development programs and government archives regarding the current and future trends education inAmericawere included.  This study focused also on pedagogical theorists’ models as they related to educational enrichment and   informational education vehicles which served to implement drop out recovery, increase STEM applicability and prepare  future workforce development strategies.

             Keywords: Aviation, Aerospace, Informal Education, After School Enrichment

      To encourage all  United States of America populations to take advantage of numerous aerospace and aviation programs which served to enhance the education experience and increase STEM applicability and limited real time and archived data spanning the years 1980 through 2011 were presented and analyzed. Participants ranged in age from 4 to twenty one.  TheUnited Statesprograms as well as comparison data from international communities were included. Government documentation to include Public Laws 106-398 (2000) and 557 (1946), information from the Department of Education and outcome based objectives were researched. Post program experience and extended mentoring involvement with participants included  life skills content, time in class, average grading standards on an A to B scale and demonstrable performance by program participants. The purpose of this qualitative study was to suggest that, for some student populations, informal aviation/aerospace education programs shifted a seemingly failing formal math, science and public school education into a bona fide, successful experience via informal participant centered curriculum. In other cases the programs enhanced student experiences and allowed a greater understanding of STEM applicability, theoretically created enthusiasm and rationale for increased STEM study and participation.  The identification, definition and clarification of this topic was  the  result of recent articles and   headlines which indicated that the American Public Education System had allegedly failed in meeting International Math and Science achievement scores.  (The New Atlantis, 2003)

Within the United States and more specifically the state of  Texas, high student dropout rates and its  overall effect have been reported in the IES, National Center for Education Statistics report(2010) and Christian Science Monitor   (2010).   As an example, the Intercultural Development Research Association report of October 2010, suggested that between the years of 1985-2010, three million students in Texashad not passed high school and overall one third of our nation’s youth had not gone beyond a high school education. It can be summarized that low education and high dropout rates increase cyclical poverty, criminal activity and incarceration.  The School Library Journal (2008),  had stated that   dropouts are three times more likely to be arrested and eight times more likely to be incarcerated. Nationally, 68% of all prison inmates did not have a high school diploma or general education diploma. In Gary Scharrer’s article for Houston and Texas News titled  “ Poverty, dropout rates bode grim future for the state”,   increased  welfare, incarceration, dependence on Medcaid, food stamps and state sponsored health insurance are inevitable as the effects of low education result in low or non  employability (2010).

Conversely, some homeschooled student populations and high achievers compete with grades and enjoy the enrichment informal education programs have to offer.  The theory that traditional teaching and learning methods fragment knowledge can further be researched at www.ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/issues/educators, and suggested  that students learn with emphasized understanding, authentic and in depth projects, enthusiasm and focus increase. Either way, students from various origins have experienced  benefits from informal, after school aviation and aeronautic  enrichment programs. Many wish to rise above the norm and achieve greater or different goals and informal aviation education programs  increased, improved, and implemented knowledge and applicability.      This brings us to the theories of William Glasser, (1959) as referenced by Marzano(2003,  p.57),  who has stated that behavior demonstrated for  students and  coupled with  expectations for   replication  served as examples and  foundations, transference  of knowledge and applicability of new behavior.   As implemented by dynamic, modern, after school, informal aviation enrichment programs, more specifically for this study: Civil Air Patrol Aerospace Education Member programs, Experimental Aircraft Association’s (EAA)Young Eagles program, and   Hi- Tek Learning Systems youth at risk work force development program; in which students were engaged in positive environments with  STEM applicability and  immediate positive and measurable outcomes. To elaborate, High –Tek Learning Systems acted as a drop out recovery and aviation work force training program in 2000 and 2001 (Hallberg, 2010).  The author served as a participant observer and instruction specialist tasked with acting as the aviation community liaison. Hi- Tek Learning Systems in conjunction with, RCI and the Upper Rio Grande WorkForce Development Commission and with cooperation of local aviation participants; Bob Kern of Skydive El Paso, Dick Azar of Blue Feather Aviation, Charles Bella of  Bear Helicopter, Phil Barrett of West Texas Airport, and numerous other state, federal and private aviation entities; at risk youth were given the opportunity to participate in an intense, aviation based life skills and workforce development program.  Life skills, ground school and field based experiences were conducted.  While much of the operation was confidential, a pre assessment, baseline Texas Assessment of Basic Education (TABE) measure was recorded. All cadet participants were guaranteed an increase in math and reading scores ( focusing though not limited to scientific empirical data), a minimum of one to three grade levels within an eight to ten week time frame. Given, all parties followed the format and maintained program integrity, and due to  intense, hands on, field based experiences, as evidenced and inferred by Vygotskian theories of  Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD), and under the tutelage of the aforementioned aviators and entities, all criteria were met. All cadets completed the program and raised their scores in math and reading one to three grade levels with in the predicted time frame.    To bring these ideas and projects into focus let us expand and elaborate on pedagogical theorists, their contributions to the field and theoretical applications as they applied to  implemented informal aviation and enrichment programs.

    The theories of  Lev Semyonovich Vygotsky’s psychosocial development as observed by Woolfolk (1998) suggested that social interaction led to changes in student development, that  culture and  tools which society provided determined the  development of the individual.   Vygotskian   constructs suggested that knowledge was acquired, built; that  learning was developed, language played a role in development and learning had to be contained within a given social content, all elements of numerous informal aviation enrichment programs.  The theory of proximal development, the transfer of information and behavior was titled by Vygotsky as the “zone of proximal development” (ZPD).

     Likewise, subjectivity and scaffolding, building upon prior knowledge, of the individual, were required elements in the developmental process (Moll, 1994). Hypothetically, subjective perception from an event experienced by more than one person, could initially have been perceived distinctly and differently, and later evolved into an event of which multiple parties interpreted an event congruously. While each had their own initial perception, affect, of the event, the phenomena changed from distinct events into the same (understood) event.  Thus creating a like mind set among distinct individuals. Scaffolding referred to the degree and support offered while one learned a new skill. An individual could and would accomplish a task themselves (automaticity) if elements of support were initially present, then gradually removed.  

     It is within this and other pedagogical contexts we find the value of informal education enrichment programs.  Christina Gallagher, (1999) identified that the individual zone of proximal development (the need for a teacher, guide or tutor) differed from person to person. Gallagher further cited Piagetian theory that children themselves were the center of their learning, that catalysis and learning were more internally based rather than externally based.

          Further, referencing the North Central Regional Educational Laboratory (2010) website on fragmented knowledge and basic skills,  high achievers were classified as receptive, and responsive with options and opinions, gifted learners comprehended ideas in depth, enjoyed self directed learning, and  generated complex, abstract ideas. Creative thinkers created new possibilities, played with ideas and speculated on outcomes. These characteristics were apparent, stated and valued in the experience of aerospace, aviation participant centered programs reviewed.  While some public school systems have expected blind obedience to the rules and regulations, quite often, it is the  risk taking, creative, beyond the  “two standards of deviation from the norm”, student who had excelled in aviation programs. While it may be argued that Piagetian and Vygotskian  theories were polarized and  impossible to concur; this author is of the belief that their theories were synchronized, symbiotic, complmentary and were exemplified in the afore mentioned enrichment program deliveries.

        To continue with the example    of   Hi –Tek Learning Systems, cadets mentored in ground school under the tutelage of Charles Bella used a flight simulator with rudder pedals, a computer monitor, and joy stick to virtually fly and navigate aircraft. Motor engagement and stimuli of the neural cortex demonstrated Piagetian theories that emphasized universal cognitive change and Vygotskian focus on cultural development as students were immersed in a new environment with expanded constructs, new vocabulary and meaning, in which they had control, uniquely distinct and different from their previous schemata. Both pedagogical theories were demonstrated, were symbiotic, and factored into demonstrable development and ground school parameters. The program resulted in participants’ measurable increased scores in the core curriculum, classroom compliance and socially acceptable behavior.  This suggested that enrichment programs, specifically in the fields of aviation and aerospace studies, for this cohort were a valuable adjunct to formal education using STEM applicability.  It is noted that while the author was bias toward the implementation of such programs, initial and post program TABE scores offered more objective data.

     The aviation/aerospace/STEM connection further correlated as articles referring to low American test results in math and science as compared to numerous other countries were reviewed and, theoretically, informal aviation learning environments included direct links and delivery systems which seemed to fill a gap and present an innovative, immediately applicable solution to the problem of achievement.

      To  further expand on  Howard Gardener’s multiple intelligences (MI) theory, Gardner had  suggested that as people learn to know, or know to learn through language, analysis and spatial representation,  we differ in areas and in strengths of the multiple intelligences (Gardner, 1991).

 

     Coincidentally, it had been observed with this singular example, that through and though the teachings and directives of the El Paso aviation community participants’ distinct styles and under the direction of Hi-Tek Learning Systems, Kern, Bella, Dawson, Barrett, Azar and Hallberg,  pedagogy resulted in participants’ demonstrable behavior. As described inGardner’s MI theory, mathematical, spatial, linguistic, kinesthetic, visual and auditory intelligences were acted upon and acted synchronously. In this example of complex and combined theories, real world  STEM application and   its applicability challenged a formal education setting with informal mechanisms, systems and methods which brought differentiated and increased (participants’) levels of cognitive, neurological and motor skills. These observations challenged traditional assumptions that all students learn in the same way ( Hallberg, 1991).

     These specific practices  included empirical and clinically collected documentation and data,  suggested that participants who were at risk or who had dropped out of high school, had experienced positive  effects of an informal  aviation program. This ultimately forced us to beg the question:

 “What methods have been utilized in public schools, are we giving student sthe attention, guidance and expertise required of a successful academic program? What materials and methods may we utilize to strengthen our national high school student retention rate, initiate authentic, applicable training, and continue a competitive stance in international competitive and cooperative achievement”?

 

      To quantify  the argument, low performance and high dropout rates have resulted in annual losses in  hundreds of billions of dollars, in Texasalone. According to Steve Murdock, sociology professor atRiceUniversity(Scharrer, 2010), those statistics are referencing (the recovery) of Texas Hispanic and African American students. This correlation further substantiated the author’s understanding that in some cases informal enrichment programs, specifically focused on aviation, aeronautics, and aerospace studies may solve targeted social, economic and employment situations. This hypothesis inferred that models of aviation programs including alternative or adjunct settings utilizing the resources of informal programs to  maintain a hold on valuable social  positions. In terms of human capitol, work force development and Gross National Product, private, state, and Federally funded programs pay for themselves in terms of reduced high school dropout rates, reduced incarceration or recidivism, reduced welfare programs, and  increased skills in the labor force numerous other aerospace and aviation related  positions are available. While not all participants are expected nor may they be interested in obtaining a pilot’s license, ground crew, engineers, meteorologists, flight navigators and engineers are just few examples of the entire body of the aviation/aerospace industries. As teaching and learning models theorized by Gardner, Piaget, Vygotsky and Marzano and as presented with programs such as Civil Air Patrol Aerospace Educators, Young Eagles, Hi-Tek  Learning Systems and NASA, new schemata and optimized pedagogy may improve  school retention, productivity, competition and economic outcomes for the state and nation.

 

       Other examples of the multitheorist approach were offered through data from the 2010 Civil Air Patrol (CAP) fact sheet.  CAP  has  three  main functions: aerospace education, cadet programs and emergency services. Founded by 150,000 citizens, volunteers have contributed to the defense of the United States. As the result of Public Law 106-398, thus far, CAP participant volunteers assisted in  flights w

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